General Publication Rules
- The Working Group Leaders should be informed in advance about any publication. Maybe some members are interested to contribute. Our aim is networking and invite people to network and find “new” networks and NOT only promoting networks which already exist. WGL should be informed in order to establish a team
- Reference to our work and ideas connected to Action CA 16227 should be done in the body of the Article (just mentioning us in the acknowledgment is NOT enough). This has been mentioned in several events.
- There is a special format about mentioning us (COST Action CA 16227) in the acknowledgement part (pls. contact your WGL or the Chair of the action for further information)
- At least 2 members from 2 different countries should be involved
- A preprint of the publication should be sent to the WGL before publication (pls. contact your WGL or the Chair of the action for further information)
- There are additional rules about the keywords of the publication (pls. contact your WGL or the Chair of the action for further information)
Smart textiles are fabrics able to sense external conditions or stimuli, to respond and adapt behaviour to them in an intelligent way and present a challenge in several fields today such as health, sport, automotive and aerospace. Electrically conductive textiles include conductive fibres, yarns, fabrics, and final products made from them. Often they are prerequisite to functioning smart textiles, and their quality determines durability, launderability, reusability and fibrous performances of smart textiles. Important part in smart textiles development has conductive polymers which are defined as organic polymers able to conduct electricity. They combine some of the mechanical features of plastics with the electrical properties typical for metals. The most attractive in a group of these polymers are polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as one of the polythiophene (PTh) derivatives. Commercially available smart textile products where conductive polymers have crucial role for their development are medical textiles, protective clothing, touch screen displays, flexible fabric keyboards, and sensors for various areas. This paper is focused on conductive polymers description, mechanism of their conductivity, and various approaches to produce electrically conductive textiles for smart textiles needs. Commercial products of conductive polymers-based smart textiles are presented as well as the objective of a number of lab-scale items.
The final geometry of 3D warp interlock fabric needs to be check during the 3D forming step to ensure the right locations of warp and weft yarns inside the final structure. Thus, a new monitoring approach has been proposed based on sensor yarns located in the fabric thickness. To ensure the accuracy of measurements, the observation of the surface deformation of the 3D warp interlock fabric has been joined to the sensor yarns measurements. At the end, it has been revealed a good correlation between strain measurement done globally by camera and locally performed by sensor yarns.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission, the ambiguous role of children and considerations for the
reopening of schools in the fall
reopening of schools in the fall
The unknown correlates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission
One of the key characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is high trans- missibility which, fueled by globalization, led to its rapid spread among the worldwide human population since its emergence in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 . Within a period of four months, the resulting coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the WHO and war-state images of healthcare workers in full personal protective equipment gear and impromptu hospitals, reminiscent of historic epidemics like the influenza of 1918, revived in response to this unprecedented for our times public health crisis . Ironically, in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and artificial intelligence, centuries-old interventions, such as face coverings, social distancing and isolation (quarantine) of infected cases, as well as shutdown of cities, regions or whole countries, were implemented to contain the spread of the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans, violently disrupting societal and economic activities across the globe. And as countries, regions or states were taking the first steps toward reopening after strict lockdowns, the resurgence of cases at ever shifting epicenters across different continents prompted a top official from the WHO to warn that the world has entered a “new and dangerous phase” of the COVID-19 pandemic on 19 June 2020 .
The mosquitoes are a serious threat to public health, since they are known vectors of many life-threatening diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year. While mosquitoes are important to maintain ecosystems, the aim is to keep them out of our personal space. People looking for alternatives to synthetic mosquito repellents may find that some natural repellents are effective in protecting them from bites. Natural insect repellents use natural ingredients such essential oils and other plant-based elements. Certain essential oils are effective and helpful in repelling mosquitoes, and are a natural alternative to the harsh chemicals in commercial bug sprays. These products are also likely to be less toxic to humans and the environment. Natural repellents and some essential oils may be effective in keeping mosquitoes away because they block their sense of smell. Many natural scents that are appealing to humans actually repel mosquitoes. Plant – based repellents are becoming more widely used as a pro- tecting measure against mosquito bites, but more research is needed to develop natural repellents in terms of improv- ing their repellent efficiency as well as in terms of their safety for use. This article presents a review about the best essential oils used as green repellents against mosquito bites, their efficiency, development and testing.
Thirteen botanical product repellent compounds such as 2-undecanone, capric, lauric, coconut fatty acids (and their methyl ester derivatives), and catnip oil were formulated in either Coppertone or Aroma Land lotions and evaluated against laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.These formulations con- tained 7–15 wt/wt of the botanical repellent as the major active ingredient either pure or as mixtures. USDA standard repellent test cages were used to determine the complete protection time (CPT) of the different for- mulated repellents. Two of the evaluated formulations, a 7% capric acid in Coppertone (CPT 2.7 ± 0.6 h) and 7% coconut fatty acids containing carrylic acid, capric acid, and lauric acid in Coppertone (CPT 2.3 ± 2.0 h), pro- vided strong repellency against mosquitoes up to 3 h, which was equivalent to the (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) DEET control (CPT 2.7 ± 0.6 h).This work suggests future potential for these botanical product-based repellents as alternatives to commercial DEET-containing products.